6+1模式帮你写出更出色的文案

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转给你身边需要文案工作的朋友。

每每看见眼前一亮的文案,总是心生羡慕。大家都是用语言交流,为什么人家能写出那么优秀的文案呢……不妨读一读这篇文章,或许能给还在为文案头疼的你,带来一点指引。

AIDA——Attention(注意),Interest(兴趣), Desire(欲望), Action(行动)——这是文案写作的经典法则,它就像一瓶万金油,可以指导任何文案的写作。但我却觉得它没什么作用。

不是因为它不正确,或行不通。只是如果你能成功让用户注意,抓住兴趣,引起欲望,促使他采取行动,那你其实根本不需要使用任何法则,文案就已经很成功了。

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如果你没做到上述事情,抱歉,AIDA法则就无任何作用,因为它的方法中并没有详细阐述如何能做到让用户注意,抓住他们的兴趣,引起购买欲望,最后成功让用户采取行动。 实践是检验真理的唯一标准,让我们来看一个失败的例子,它完全符合AIDA法则,最后却没有成功的让我采取购买行动。

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放高利贷的短信?

我最近收到一个陌生号码发来的短信,内容是: 无抵押0风险,快至1天放款,30秒网上申请,帮您体面应急!回复Y了解更多,回复N表示不感兴趣。

614fcf2597_177c-20130829164449501

无论是Y还是N,我都不会回复。我打通这个手机号码,试图表达我的愤怒和厌恶之情。可出乎意料,这个号码居然无人应答,接通后自动转到语音信箱。

对于这种营销方式,我实在不敢恭维。

让我们来看看他是如何将AIDA法则运用到这条文案写作中的。

A attention(让用户注意)

这个短信已经成功引起了我的注意。毕竟,发短信这种方式一定能得到注意。

I interest (抓住兴趣)

接下来,我很感兴趣。几天之内就能拿到一笔钱,它完全能引起我的兴趣。这一步,AIDA法则运用的也很好。

D desire (引起欲望)

这一步也很好。如果我现在急缺资金,我当然需要一笔贷款。

A action

在最后一步,它失败了。我没有采取任何行动。

到底缺少了什么导致AIDA模式会行不通?

在这条短信中,缺少了几个很重要的元素:你是谁?为什么联系我?我为什么要相信你? 上下文背景是整个信息重要组成部分。没有它,即使文案再出色,用户也不会采取任何行动。

AIDA最大的问题是它认为行动会产生兴趣,然后产生欲望,最后采取行动。却少了最重要的一块:上下文背景。 AIDA没有最后让用户真正去行动的动力。

一个更好的模式:6+1

这个模式相对有点复杂。但正因为复杂,才非常有效。

它弥补了AIDA所缺少,但却必不可少的因素。6+1指的是:6个步骤外加贯穿始终的一个原则,只要脚踏实地,一定能写出非常优秀的文案。

第一步:描述上下文背景

在试图得到用户关注前,你一定要做一件事情。回答用户心里的疑问:你是谁?你为什么和我说话?

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太多营销人员为了竞争到单身人士的注意,所以建立上下文背景可以让你从人群中脱颖而出。垃圾邮件是一个很好案例。但垃圾邮件的背景是:你不知道我们是谁,但是我们想卖给你一些东西。这就是为什么垃圾邮件没有人读,直接放到垃圾箱了。

发送邮件其实就像是给用户写一封信,如果用户开始就能通过一些简单的文字,知道是谁给他写这封信,那么他打开这封信的比例将会高很多。

收信人的疑问:到底是谁在和我说话?这是一个隐性问题,也是一个答案。比如,你应征一份工作,向发布工作的单位递交你的简历和求职信。在环境和信的格式相结合的情况下,就能非常清楚的表明,为什么你要写信给他们。

虽然招聘者已经知道你为什么写信给他们,但你还是尽可能的想交代更多的背景给招聘者。你会在信开头提到你在哪儿找到这个求职信息,你为什么想来应聘这个工作(例如你很想在这个公司工作,你喜欢这个行业等等)如果你能将这些交代得很清楚,招聘者一定会优先录取你。

在上面文本消息的例子中,可以添加一个链接,点击后了解更多关于公司的信息。或者自动回复一条短信,这些都比一台电脑告诉我:语音信箱已经满了要好得多。

更好的做法是,在信息开始前,可以用一些简短的文字交代一下发信人与收信人之前有过的接触。比如,我的无线供应商在和我发短信介绍一些新的业务时,他们总是以“亲爱的Rogers用户”做为开头。这让我很明确的知道这是谁在和我写信。这个发信人是可信任,因为他们之前和我接触过。所以我很大可能性会去读这条信息。当然,这是在收信人和发信人之间有一定关系和接触时,这在任何情况下都是最好的信息传递的方式。

上下文背景可以归结为你能够让用户沉浸在你的消息中的原因。如果他们关注了你的博客,订阅就成为您发给他们任何电子邮件的上下文。如果是在您的网站上发现的内容,那么这个人对于你的话题或服务信息的搜索就是上下文。如果你正在报刊杂志上发布广告,那么该刊物的主题也就是上下文。

第二步:引起注意

一旦你建立起一个上下文的背景,你就能够继续抓住用户的注意了。

如果你是作家,可以通过标题来引起用户的注意。如果是设计师,他们一定会设计能吸引你第一眼关注的作品,吸引你的眼球。

已经有很多方法告诉你如何去吸引用户注意了,所以这些细节我就不在文章中重点做介绍了。你必须要保证能引起他们的注意。

第三步:引起欲望

目前营销市场的现实是:即使能引起用户的注意,他们的注意力也不会持续太长的时间。以前说的十五分钟已经过时了,现在已经接近十五秒。

你必须把握那十五秒中,让用户对你的产品产生渴望。并且能让这种渴望持续。

这就相当于你写博客时前面一段引言,他就是给读者的诱饵:你要通过引言抓住读者的兴趣,你要把他们卷进他们的经历,还有他们没有考虑到的想法,这些都能让他们继续阅读你的博客。然后你再把故事详情告诉他们。

第四步:建立落差

你成功引起了他们的注意,也创造了欲望。这时候你要开始说服他们采取行动了。你现在需要告诉你的用户,如果现在不立即使用这个产品或者服务,那么后果是什么。我们把这个环节称之为建立落差。

你可以通过 “如果什么都不改变?那将意味着什么?“这样的询问引出落差,答案可能会激起强烈的情感;毕竟,你在谈论他们的痛苦现状 的影响—— 展望前景无法改变是可怕的。这个案例可以很好的强调无所作为的后果。

第五步:解决方案

你不能让读者待在这个状态;一旦你建立了落差,要迅速过渡到你的解决方案。说你有一个解决方案是很重要的,并且要尽他们需要知道,以了解它 - 但不告诉他们。任何额外的细节是一个机会问题或不同意你的意见,使有关如何解决工作上的严格需要知道的基础。

当然,所有常规的最佳实践的情感与理性的利益说话,而不是功能,并解决你的理想客户仍然适用。不需要重复他们在这里。

第六步:呼吁用户采取行动

当然,我们最终目的是想让用户采取行动,这需要你做到两个事情:

1 当用户阅读完,你应该让他们迅速采取行动。并非让他们打你手机或者访问我们的网站或twitter。

2 明确告诉用户让他们采取行动。而不是和他们绕圈子,把你想要他们做的事情直白的告诉他们。

这些你们应该很熟悉也很清楚如何去做,不需要我解释的太多。

此外,还有一点是非常重要的,需要你贯穿始终。

信誉:整个模式中额外的一步

以上几点都是营销技巧,想要最后成功,有一点是非常重要,不可缺少的。这就是诚信。

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如果读者不相信你说的话,即使你以上几步做得再好,用户也没有理由按照你说的去做。 想要用户觉得你诚信,就必须先了解用户的现实处境。如果连他们的情况都不了解,你又怎么去帮他们改善现状呢?

紧接着,告诉他们为什么可以相信你所说的:诉诸于常识(你说的应该是合理的),表明是已被社会证明的(有多少人已经采取你想要采取的行动?)展示你的专业性,(你的教育和项实践经验)并在任何可能的时候,尽可能提供减少风险的保证。

这不是第六步,因为不是需要你只做一次的。相反,你要在每一步、每一条信息都贯穿始终,努力逐步建立你的信誉,用户才会最终对你产生信任。

6 + 1模型在AIDA模型失败的地方成功了,因为它迫使你建立自己在用户的眼中的信誉。虽然通过AIDA模型当然也是可能的,但是6 + 1公式会促使你考虑到用户消化你的文案时的不同反应。对一个新手文案撰稿人,或是无法达到他们认为应该达到的转化数量的人而言,这些额外的步骤将是无价之宝。

(译文完)

英文原文参考:http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2011/10/11/introducing-6-1-model-for-effective-copywriting/

原文作者:

Introducing The 6 + 1 Model For Effective Copywriting (Better Than AIDA!)

AIDA. Attention, interest, desire, action.
It’s the classic copywriting formula, studied and used by almost every copywriter on the planet.
Well, I’m not a fan.
Not because it isn’t accurate, and not because it doesn’t work. If your writing can get attention, grab interest, create desire and prompt action, then you’re doing a lot of things right.
If your writing isn’t doing these things, however, then I don’t think AIDA will help you very much, because it doesn’t do enough to explain how to do any of these things.
The best way to learn is by example, so let’s look at a promotional failure and see how it conforms to AIDA but still doesn’t work.

(Image source: alt1040)
Text-Message Loan Sharking?
I recently received a text message from a number I didn’t recognize. It read:
Coming up short between pay-days? You can solve the problem NOW with a $300–$1000 INSTANT–Advance! Respond YES if interested, NO–to–STOP

(Image: someToast)
Now, obviously, I didn’t text back the anonymous sender with a “Yes.” I didn’t text them back with a “No” either. I called the number to tell them that I don’t appreciate unsolicited spam marketing. But no one answered; the call went to a voicemail box that was full.
I was unimpressed before; this sealed the deal!
Let’s see how this piece of marketing stacks up on the AIDA scale:
A for attention
Sure, the text message got my attention. After all, text messaging is an interruptive medium; you’re bound to get attention that way.
I for interest
Okay, I’ll play along. Let’s say that I am, in fact, coming up short between pay days: the message would have my interest. So far, so good.
D for desire
Also good. If I’m broke and need cash, then I’d definitely want an advance.
A for action
Well, the message called for action (“Respond YES if interested”), but it didn’t lead to action. Fail.
WHAT WAS MISSING? WHY DIDN’T IT WORK?
The missing element in this campaign was context: who are they, why are they contacting me, and why should I trust them?
Context is a critical component of effective messaging. Without it, action likely won’t result, even if you call for it.
The trouble with AIDA is that it implies that attention leads to interest, which then leads to desire, which in turn leads to action. But a piece of the puzzle is still missing: context.
AIDA doesn’t give you all of the ingredients that combine to result in action — which is what you ultimately want!
A Better Model: 6 + 1
This model is a little more complex, which is a good thing.
Complexity is important — critical, even. And in this case, it involves information that AIDA lacks but that is needed in order to write effective copy (unless you’re one of those people to whom it comes as naturally as speaking). Here, then, is the 6 + 1 model, with six steps plus one extra thing you’ve got to cover along the way.
Ready to dive in? Let’s get started with the first item.
STEP 1: CONTEXT
The very first thing you need to do, before trying to get attention or anything else, is establish context. Answer the audience’s implicit question, “Who are you, and why are you talking to me?”

(Image: loop_oh)
Too many marketers compete for the attention of every single person, so establishing context is necessary to stand out from the crowd. Junk mail is a perfect illustration. The context of junk mail is, “You don’t know us, but we want to sell you something!” That’s why most junk mail ends up in the trash, unread.
A campaign that establishes context, on the other hand, might arrive in a personally addressed envelope and be written in the form of a letter. The context here is implied, and the proportion of people who open the envelope would be much higher. The first few sentences, naturally, would explain why the recipient is familiar with the sender and needs the product or service.
Just as the recipient’s question of “Who is this person talking to me?” is implicit, so too can be the answer. For example, if you’re reaching out to someone in response to a job offer that they’ve posted, you would send them a cover letter and CV. The combination of circumstances and the format of your letter make it clear why you’re reaching out to them.
That being said, you always want to create as strong a context as possible. So, you would start the cover letter by mentioning where you found the job posting and why you felt you should apply (you’ve always wanted to work for this company, you love the industry, etc.) This explicit context immediately puts you ahead of other applicants.
In the text-message example above, context could have been established with a link to a website where I could learn more about the company, or even an automated message at the end of the phone number, instead of a computer telling me that the voicemail box is full.
Better yet, the text message could have begun with a few words reminding me of previous interactions I might have had with the sender. For example, my wireless service provider occasionally sends me text messages about new offers and services, and they always begin with, “Dear Rogers customer…” This instantly lets me know that I am being contacted by someone I know for a specific reason. The sender is credible because it provides a service to me, so I am very likely to read its message. Of course, this works only when the sender has some sort of relationship with the recipient — but that makes for the best messaging in any case.
Context comes down to the reason why your audience is being exposed to your message. If they are subscribers to your blog, then that subscription serves as the context for any email you send them. If the content is found on your website, then the person’s search for information about your topic or service is the context. If you’re running an ad in a newspaper or magazine, then the theme of that publication is the context.
STEP 2: ATTENTION
Once context has been established, you can go ahead and grab the audience’s attention.
If you’re the writer, you’ll do so with the headline. And if you’re the designer, you will make sure that, at first glance, the presentation is eye-catching.
Plenty of resources out there will teach you how to do that, so I won’t go into detail in this article. Suffice it to say that you have to grab your audience’s attention and hold it until you can create…
STEP 3: DESIRE
The reality of marketing in this day and age is that attention is short-lived. Where we once spoke of 15 minutes of fame, today it’s a lot closer to 15 seconds.
In the span of those 15 seconds, you have to make your audience want something, and want it badly enough to keep on reading.
If you’re writing a blog post, this would happen in your opening paragraphs, the section before the <more> tag. It’s the hook: you’ve grabbed their attention, and now you’ve got to reel them in by describing the symptoms that they’re experiencing, ideas that they may not have considered, or outcomes that they want for themselves. This will inspire them to continue reading, and then you can go into detail and describe…
STEP 4: THE GAP
You’ve got their attention, and created desire — at this point your prospect should be convinced that they need to take action of some kind.
Now you must drive home the idea by communicating the difference between what will happen if they do nothing and what will happen if they take advantage of your product or service. We call this establishing the gap.
You can do this by asking, “What if nothing changed? What would that mean?” Then spell it out for them.
The answer might be emotional; after all, you’re talking about the painful implications of their current situation — the prospect of the situation not changing is scary. This is an excellent time to use examples and case studies to highlight the consequences of inaction.
STEP 5: SOLUTION
You can’t leave the reader in this state; once you’ve established the gap, transition quickly into your solution. It’s important to say that you have a solution, and to tell them as much as they need to know in order to understand that it will work — but no more. Any extra detail is an opportunity to question or disagree with you, so keep information about how the solution works on a strictly need-to-know basis.
Of course, all of the usual best practices about speaking to emotional versus rational benefits, rather than features, and addressing your one ideal customer still apply. No need to rehash them here.
STEP 6: CALL TO ACTION
Of course, you have to end with a call to action, which requires you to do two things:
Identify the single next step that you want your audience to take when they’re done reading. Not an array of options (“Call us on the phone or visit our website or follow us on Twitter or…”), just one next action.
Explicitly ask the audience to take that action. Don’t dance around the issue; if you want them to do something, say so.
Again, this is familiar territory, so I won’t go into any more detail here.
It’s tempting to think that we’re done with the model, but don’t forget the +1 part of the model. One important thing still needs to be covered.
Credibility: The Extra Step Along The Way
You can do all of the above and you’ll be well on your way to a sale, but you still won’t get it without one more ingredient, added along the way. That ingredient is credibility.

(Image: Denise Cross)
If the reader doesn’t believe what you say, or doesn’t believe that you’re in a position to say it, then they have no reason to follow through on anything you ask them to do, no matter how well you cover the other steps in your content.
To establish credibility, you have to start with understanding: showing the reader that you understand their reality intimately. After all, if you don’t really know their situation, then how would you know how to improve it?
Then show the reader why they can trust that you know what you’re talking about: appeal to their common sense (what you’re saying should make sense), demonstrate social proof (how many other people have already taken the action you want them to take?), demonstrate your expertise (your education and experience in the subject matter), and apply risk-reversal whenever possible (with guarantees and warranties).
This isn’t the sixth step, because you don’t do it all at once. Rather, you build a bit of credibility here and a bit more there, all the way through your messaging, so that by the end they believe you.
The 6 + 1 model succeeds where AIDA fails because it forces you to establish yourself as a source of authority in the reader’s eyes. While doing this through AIDA certainly is possible, the 6 + 1 formula impels you to account for the different responses that readers will have as they digest your copy. For a new copywriter, or a copywriter who is not achieving the amount of conversions that they think they should, these extra steps will be invaluable.
(al)